About Linux File Hierarchy System

  • Linux uses single rooted, inverted tree like file system hierarchy. The directories with some brief description are listed below.

/  –  this is top level directory
it is parent directory for all other directories
it is called as ROOT directory
it is represented by forward slash(/)
/root –  it is home directory for root user(super user)
it provides working environment for root user
/home  – it is home directory for other users
it provide working environment for other users(other than root)
 /boot – it contains bootable files for linux like
vmlinuz(kernel) ….. ntoskrnl
initrd(INITial Ram Disk)and
GRUB(GRand Unified Bootloader)…. boot.ini, ntldr
/etc –  It contains all configuration files like /etc/passwd, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/dhcp.conf. Each and every configuration file in linux is stored only in this directory.

Examples :

/etc/passwd – contains the user accounts and its information

/etc/shadow – contains the encrypted passwords and other user information.

 /usr –  By default softwares are installed in /usr directory

/opt –  It is optional directory and it contains third party softwares
/bin  – It contains commands used by all users except root (Binary files)

/sbin –  It contains commands used by only Super User(root)

/dev –  It contains device files  like /dev/hda  for harddisk and /dev/cdrom for cdrom similar to device manager of windows

   /proc It contain process files. Its contents are not permanent, they keep on changing.
It is also called as Virtual Directory  and also contains information which is useful for OS information(CPU,Memory) like /proc/meminfo for memory information and /proc/cpuinfo  for information of CPU
 /var –  It is containing variable data like mails, log files
/mnt  – It is default mount point for any partition and it is empty bydefault
/media –  It contains all of removable media like cdrom, pendrive.
/lib – It contains library files which are used by OS, it is similar to dll files of windows
library files in linux are SO(shared object) files.
/tmp  –  It stores the  temporary files


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